How many people have truly mastered quantum field theory, statistical inference, detector physics, and distributed computing?What, then, should we make of any paper announcing that the Higgs boson has been found?
Standard pre-publication peer review will mean little. Yes, it’ll be useful as an independent sanity check of the work. But all it will show is that there’s no glaringly obvious holes. It certainly won’t involve more than a cursory inspection of the evidence.
When discoveries rely on hundreds of pieces of evidence or steps of reasoning, we can be pretty sure of our conclusions, provided our error rate is low, say one part in a hundred thousand. But when we start to use a million or a billion (or a trillion or more) pieces of evidence or steps of reasoning, an error rate of one part in a million
becomes a guarantee of failure, unless we develop systems that can tolerate those errors.
It seems to me that one of the core questions the scientific community will wrestle with over the next few decades is what principles and practices we use to judge whether or not a conclusion drawn from a large body of networked knowledge is correct? To put it another way, how can we ensure that we reliably come to correct conclusions, despite the fact that some of our evidence or reasoning is almost certainly wrong?
Or think of the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter. That’s often described as a failure to convert between metric and imperial units, which makes it sound trivial, like the people at NASA are fools. The real problem was deeper. As a NASA official said:
People sometimes make errors. The problem here was not the error [of unit conversion], it was the failure of NASA’s systems engineering, and the checks and balances in our processes to detect the error. That’s why we lost the spacecraft.
In other words, when you’re working at NASA scale, problems that are unlikely at small scale, like failing to do a unit conversion, are certain to occur. It’s foolish to act as though they won’t happen. Instead, you need to develop systems which limit the impact of such errors.
In the context of science, what this means is that we need new methods of fault-tolerant discovery.
… one useful source of ideas may be systems and safety engineering, which are responsible for the reliable performance of complex systems such as modern aircraft. According to Boeing, a 747-400 has six million parts, and the first 747 required 75,000 engineering drawings. Not to mention all the fallible human “components” in a modern aircraft. Yet aircraft systems and safety engineers have developed checks and balances that let us draw with very high probability the conclusion “The plane will get safely from point A to B”. Sounds like a promising source of insights to me!